I found the book ‘Cubism’ by Guillaume Apollinaire in the University Center Library. It is accessible online as well if you login to your New School account.
Cubism is a type of realism. It tries to show society how it is and not just how it seems.
‘In 1907, one painting signaled the prelude to a change in painting: Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon. When Pablo Picasso first exhibited this bordello scene with five female figures, even the collector Sergei Shehukin and his friend Georges Braque considered the painting to be ‘a loss for french painting’. However, the significance of this new view of reality was not lost on Braque. In this work, Picasso crafted for the first time a clear and rational lens without any aesthetic allusions. Taking Cézanne’s analysis of shape further, Picasso fragmented the forms into small cubes. It was the task of the viewer, when standing before the canvas, to put this puzzle of various spatial views together into a whole. Moreover, the muted colors signalled another new direction for painting. However, most of the novelty lay in the independence of the painting from the preconditions given by nature. This was the artist’s response to the changed preconditions of science regarding space and time, using Cézanne’s demand that in nature one should seek out the sphere, the cone and the cylinder as the basis for his compositional ideas. At the 1909 Salon des Indépendants, the critic Louis de Vauxcelles spoke of cubes, and Cubism was born.”(page 29)